Glaucoma, a important result in of blindness, is characterised by improved intraocular stress (though it can also come about with ordinary intraocular force), optic nerve hurt, and the gradual decline of peripheral vision. Normally, the boost in stress is the end result of insufficient drainage of aqueous humor, which generally flows from the posterior chamber guiding the iris to the anterior chamber in front of the iris.
Around 90% of glaucoma cases are of the open angle type, in which there is a vast, open angle in between the eye’s iris and cornea. In angle-closure glaucoma, the angle amongst the iris and cornea is narrow. Though open up angle glaucoma develops slowly, angle-closure glaucoma will come on abruptly. Both of those types of glaucoma impair aqueous humor outflow.
Other varieties incorporate congenital glaucoma and variants of open up-angle and angle-closure glaucoma that involve secondary glaucoma, exfoliative glaucoma, traumatic glaucoma, and additional.
Several solutions for glaucoma exist, predominantly in the type of eye drops, like the prostaglandin analog bimatoprost that has acquired recognition over the past various decades because of to its potential to thicken and darken the eyelashes, ensuing in the prescription cosmetic recognised as Latisse®. There are also surgical therapy solutions that have had restricted success.
B-Nutritional vitamins, Antioxidant Aid, and Much more
Nutritional therapies for glaucoma can help decrease intraocular force without having the side results of medicines, nevertheless, they are most usually prompt to act in enhance with typical therapies instead than exchange them.
A review of nutritional variables and glaucoma noted that better intake of carrots, collard greens, kale, and peaches have been connected with drastically decrease hazard for glaucoma in women of all ages in comparison with intake of the meals a lot less than after for each month.1
These food items are superior in vitamins A, B2, and C, as perfectly as carotenoids. Supplemental vitamin C has been related with a lessen threat of building glaucoma in a review of a subgroup of participants in the 2005−2006 National Health and fitness and Nourishment Assessment Survey.2 Topics whose supplemental vitamin C intake was between the leading 20% of subjects had a 53% lower risk of the disease than those people among the most affordable 20%.
Supplementation with alpha lipoic acid, a compound that has shown rejuvenating outcome in gerontologic experiments,3,4 was demonstrated to both of those enable protect against and take care of glaucoma in a mouse design by cutting down oxidative worry and limiting sickness-relevant retinal ganglion cell dying and dysfunction.5
A examine that included patients with dry eye problems and those with nonadvanced most important open-angle glaucoma (who routinely build dry eye in affiliation with the use of eye drops utilized to handle the condition) identified that each day supplementation with antioxidants like natural vitamins A, C and E moreover necessary fatty acids (EPA, DHA) for a few months improved dry eye indicators and symptoms when compared with these who did not receive the health supplements.6
Forskolin (Coleus forskohli) is an herb that has been employed topically to assistance manage intraocular tension. A analyze that evaluated orally administered forskolin put together with rutin (a glycoside of quercetin) in a group of clients with main open angle glaucoma being treated with a topical drug routine uncovered a 10% lower in intraocular stress in taken care of subjects, whilst intraocular stress remained steady in the management team.7
A identical investigation of this nutrient blend moreover natural vitamins B1 and B2 resulted in an approximate 20% decrease in intraocular strain in comparison with pretreatment values, major the authors of the report to conclude that, “[…[ forskolin and rutin given through the oral route appear to reach the ocular district, where they can act in synergy with topical pharmacological treatments, and contribute to the control of intraocular pressure.8
The intake of the B vitamin folate has been linked with a lower risk of exfoliative glaucoma or suspected disease.9 An evaluation of 78,980 women who participated in the Nurses’ Health Study and 41,221 male participants in the Health Professionals Follow-Up study found a 25% lower risk of diagnosed or suspected exfoliative glaucoma among those whose intake of folate was among the highest 20% compared with the lowest 20%.
Further investigation revealed that folate from supplements but not from diet was responsible for the protective effect9. Other research involving patients with exfoliative glaucoma and exfoliation syndrome (which increases the risk of exfoliative glaucoma) has found an association with elevated plasma homocysteine, which is treatable with B vitamins.10
Healthy Blood Flow
While the cause of normal tension glaucoma is unknown, one hypothesis concerning its occurrence suggests that the disease is due to reduced blood flow to the optic nerve. To investigate this vascular hypothesis, researchers in Seoul, Korea evaluated the effects of Ginkgo biloba, which has beneficial effects on blood circulation and other benefits, and bilberry anthocyanins, which have an affinity for the eye and vascular tissues.11
After treatment for nearly two years, normal tension glaucoma patients who received anthocyanins or ginkgo experienced improvement in the Humphrey Visual Field test, which is used to evaluate peripheral vision that becomes impaired with glaucoma. Improvement also occurred in best corrected-visual acuity among those who received anthocyanins, while deteriorating in the control group.
Another study that tested anthocyanins from black currant resulted in improved ocular blood flow in comparison with a placebo group.12
A review suggests that resveratrol, a compound occurring in red grapes and wine, could aid in the prevention of glaucoma, due to its vascular-enhancing properties that support the eyes’ microcirculation.13
In 2008, Molecular Vision published the finding of researchers at Italy’s University of Chieti-Pescara of improved ocular blood flow and lowered average intraocular pressure in association with Mirtogenol®, a combination of Mirtoselect® from bilberry and Pycnogenol® from French Maritime pine bark, in a study that included 38 asymptomatic participants with intraocular hypertension.14
The authors of the study conclude that dietary intervention with the combination may help prevent progression to higher intraocular pressure and symptomatic glaucoma. They note that bilberry and Pycnogenol® have been used as supplements for decades without significant side effects.
The Bottom Line
Glaucoma, while slow-progressing in its most common manifestation, remains an eventual thief of sight. It is imperative that anyone with glaucoma or suspected glaucoma receive treatment by an ophthalmologist. Progression of the disease may be slowed with early detection and treatment. Nutritional supplements may be added in the hope of boosting results. Please consult with your physician concerning the compatibility with your medication regimen of any supplements under consideration.
- Coleman AL et al. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008 Jun;145(6):1081-9.
- Wang SY et al. Eye (Lond). 2013 Apr;27(4):487-94.
- Liu J et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Feb 19;99(4):2356-61.
- Shenk JC et al. J Neurol Sci. 2009 Aug 15;283(1-2):199-206.
- Inman DM et al. PLoS One. 2013 Jun 5;8(6):e65389.
- Galbis-Estrada C et al. Clin Interv Aging. 2013;8:711-9.
- Vertrugno M et al. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Oct;28(5):536-41.
- Pescosolido N et al. Clin Ter. 2010;161(3):e81-5.
- Kang JH et al. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014 May;132(5):549-59.
- Vessani RM et al. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003 Jul;136(1):41-6.
- Shim SH et al. J Med Food. 2012 Sep;15(9):818-23.
- Ohguro H et al. Ophthalmologica. 2012;228(1):26-35.
- Bola C et al. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2014 May;252(5):699-713.
- Steigerwalt RD et al. Mol Vis. 2008 Jul 10;14:1288-92.